Publications and Patents

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System-Level Simulation for Integrated Phase-Change Photonics

S. Carrillo, A. Lugnan, E. Gemo, P. Bienstman, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran, C. D. Wright

J. Light. Technol. (2021), doi: 10.1109/JLT.2021.3099914

Nonthermal Transport of Energy Driven by Photoexcited Carriers in Switchable Solid States of GeTe

R. Gu, T. Perrault, V. Juvé, G. Vaudel, M. Weis, A. Bulou, N. Chigarev, A. Levchuk, S. Raetz, V.E. Gusev, Z. Cheng, H. Bhaskaran, and P. Ruello

Phys. Rev. Applied (2021), doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.16.014055

Nanoscale bilayer mechanical lithography using water as developer

Y. Shu, B. F. Porter, E. J. H. Soh, N. Farmakidis, S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. H. Warner, H. Bhaskaran

Nano Lett. (2021), doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00251

Chalcogenide phase-change devices for neuromorphic photonic computing

F. Brückerhoff-Plückelmann, J. Feldmann, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, W. H. P. Pernice

J. Appl. Phys. (2021), doi: 10.1063/5.0042549

Memristors get the hues

S. G. Sarwat, H. Bhaskaran

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2021), doi: 10.1038/s41565-021-00891-7

Electrohydrodynamic jet printed conducting polymer for enhanced chemiresistive gas sensors

N. Mkhize, K. Murugappan, M. R. Castell, H. Bhaskaran

J. Mater. Chem. C. (2021), doi: 10.1039/D0TC05719C

A plasmonically enhanced route to faster and more energy-efficient phase-change integrated photonic memory and computing devices

E. Gemo, J. Faneca, S. G.-C. Carrillo, A. Baldycheva, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran, C. D. Wright

J. Appl. Phys. (2021), doi: 10.1063/5.0042962

Photonics for artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing

B. J. Shastri, A. N. Tait, T. Ferreira de Lima, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran, C. D. Wright, P. R. Prucnal

Nat. Photonics (2021), doi: 10.1038/s41566-020-00754-y

Parallel convolutional processing using an integrated photonic tensor core

J. Feldmann, N. Youngblood, M. Karpov, H. Gehring, X. Li, M. Stappers, M. Le Gallo, X. Fu, A. Lukashchuk, A. S. Raja, J. Liu, C. D. Wright, A. Sebastian, T. J. Kippenberg, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran

Nature (2021), doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-03070-1

Antimony thin films demonstrate programmable optical nonlinearity

Z. Cheng, T. Milne, P. Salter, J. S. Kim, S. Humphrey, M. Booth, H. Bhaskaran

Sci. Adv. (2021), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abd7097

On-chip phase change optical matrix multiplication core

X. Li, N. Youngblood, W. Zhou, J. Feldmann, J. Swett, S. Aggarwal, A. Sebastian, C. D. Wright, W. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran

2020 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2020), doi: 10.1109/IEDM13553.2020.9372052

Dynamically tunable transmissive color filters using ultra-thin phase change materials

Q. He, N. Youngblood,* Z. Cheng, X. Miao, H. Bhaskaran

Opt. Mater. Express (2020), doi: 10.1364/OE.411874

Roadmap on emerging hardware and technology for machine learning

K. Berggren, Q. Xia, K. K Likharev, D. B Strukov, H. Jiang, T. Mikolajick, D. Querlioz, M. Salinga, J. R Erickson, S. Pi, F. Xiong, P. Lin, C. Li, Y. Chen, S. Xiong, B. D Hoskins, M. W Daniels, A. Madhavan, J. A Liddle, J. J McClelland, Y. Yang, J. Rupp, S. S Nonnenmann, K. Cheng, N. Gong, M. A. Lastras-Montaño, A. A. Talin, A. Salleo, B. J Shastri, T. Ferreira de Lima, P. Prucnal, A. N Tait, Y. Shen, H. Meng, C. Roques-Carmes, Z. Cheng, H. Bhaskaran, D. Jariwala, H. Wang, J. M Shainline, K. Segall, J. J. Yang, K. Roy, S. Datta, A. Raychowdhury

Nanotechnology (2020), doi: 10.1088/1361-6528/aba70f

Performance characteristics of phase-change integrated silicon nitride photonic devices in the O and C telecommunications bands

J. Faneca, S. G-C. Carrillo, E. Gemo, C. R. Galarreta, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, H. Bhaskaran, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, A. Baldycheva

Opt. Mater. Express (2020), doi: 10.1364/OME.397833

Experimental investigation of silicon and silicon nitride platforms for phase-change photonic in-memory computing 

X. Li, N. Youngblood, Z. Cheng, S. G-C. Carrillo, E. Gemo, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran

Optica (2020), doi: 10.1364/OPTICA.379228

Controlling Defects in Continuous 2D GaS Films for High‐Performance Wavelength‐Tunable UV‐Discriminating Photodetectors               

Y. Lu, J. Chen, T. Chen, Y. Shu, R-J. Chang, Y. Sheng, V. Shautsova, N. Mkhize, P. Holdway, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

Adv. Mater. (2020), doi: 10.1002/adma.201906958

Filamentary High-Resolution Electrical Probes for Nanoengineering                    

E. J. H. Soh, S. G. Sarwat, G. Mazzotta, B. F. Porter, M. Riede, R. Nicholas, J. S. Kim, H. Bhaskaran

Nano Lett. (2020), doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04302

Ultrathin All-2D Lateral Graphene/GaS/Graphene UV Photodetectors by Direct CVD Growth

T. Chen, Y. Lu, Y. Sheng, Y. Shu, X. Li, R-J. Chang, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2019), doi: 10.1021/acsami.9b11984

Direct Laser Patterning and Phase Transformation of 2D PdSe2 Films for On-Demand Device Fabrication

V. Shautsova, S. Sinha, L. Hou, Q. Zhang, M. Tweedie, Y. Lu, Y. Sheng, B. F. Porter, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

ACS Nano (2019), doi: 10.1021/acsnano.9b06892

Plasmonic nanogap enhanced phase-change devices with dual electrical-optical functionality

N. Farmakidis, N. Youngblood, X. Li, J. Tan, J. L. Swett, Z. Cheng, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran

Sci. Adv. (2019), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2687

Strong Opto-Structural Coupling in Low Dimensional GeSe3 Films

S. G. Sarwat, Z. Cheng, N. Youngblood, M. S. Alias, S. Sinha, J. Warner, H. Bhaskaran

Nano. Lett. (2019), doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b03039

Behavioral modeling of integrated phase-change photonic devices for neuromorphic computing applications

SG. C. Carrillo, E. Gemo, X. Li, N. Youngblood, A. Katumba, P. Bienstman, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran, C. D. Wright

APL Materials (2019), doi: 10.1063/1.5111840

Integrated phase-change photonic devices and systems

C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, W. H. P. Pernice

MRS Bulletin (2019), doi: 10.1557/mrs.2019.203

Plasmonically-enhanced all-optical integrated phase-change memory

E. Gemo, S. G-C. Carrillo, C. R. De Galarreta, A. Baldycheva, H. Hayat, N. Youngblood, H. Bhaskaran, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright

Opt. Express (2019), doi: 10.1364/OE.27.024724

Morphology Control of Two-Dimensional Tin Disulfide on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Using Chemical Vapor Deposition for Nanoelectronic Applications

R-J. Chang, Y. Sheng, T. Chen, N. Mkhize, Y. Lu, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (2019),  doi: 10.1021/acsanm.9b00676

Postgrowth Substitutional Tin Doping of 2D WS2 Crystals Using Chemical Vapor Deposition

R-J. Chang, Y. Sheng, G. H. Ryu, N. Mkhize, T. Chen, Y. Lu, J. Chen, J. K. Lee, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2019), doi: 10.1021/acsami.9b06588

All-optical spiking neurosynaptic networks with self-learning capabilities

J. Feldmann, N. Youngblood, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, W. H. P. Pernice

Nature (2019), doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1157-8

In-memory computing on a photonic platform

C. Rios, N. Youngblood, Z. Cheng, M. Le Gallo, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, A. Sebastian and H. Bhaskaran

Sci. Adv. (2019), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau5759

Tunable Volatility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in Integrated Photonics

N. Youngblood, C. Ríos, E. Gemo, J. Feldmann, Z. Cheng, A. Baldycheva, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright and H. Bhaskaran

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2019), doi: 10.1002/adfm.201807571

Fast and reliable storage using a 5 bit, nonvolatile photonic memory cell

X. Li, N. Youngblood, C. Ríos, Z. Cheng, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice H. Bhaskaran

Optica (2019), doi: 10.1364/OPTICA.6.000001 (Front cover article)

Engineering Interface-Dependent Photoconductivity in Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanoscale Devices

S. G. Sarwat, N. Youngblood, Y-Y. Au, J. A. Mol, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2018), doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b17602

Controlled optical switching of phase change materials by evanescent-field coupling in integrated photonics (Invited)

C. Ríos, M. Stegmeier, Z. Cheng, N. Youngblood, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran

Opt. Mater. Express (2018), doi: 10.1364/OME.8.002455

Device‐Level Photonic Memories and Logic Applications Using Phase‐Change Materials

Z. Cheng, C. Rios, N. Younglood, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice, H. Bhaskaran

Adv. Mater. (2018), doi: 10.1002/adma.201802435

Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Two-Dimensional Monolayer Gallium Sulfide Crystals Using Hydrogen Reduction of Ga2S3

X. Wang, Y. Sheng, R-J. Chang, J. K. Lee, Y. Zhou, S. Li, T. Chen, H. Huang, B. F. Porter, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

ACS Omega (2018), doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00749

Large Dendritic Monolayer MoS2 Grown by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition for Electrocatalysis

W. Xu, S. Li, S. Zhou, J. K. Lee, S. Wang, S. G. Sarwat, X. Wang, H. Bhaskaran, M. Pasta, J. H. Warner

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2018), doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b14861

High-Performance All 2D-Layered Tin Disulfide: Graphene Photodetecting Transistors with Thickness-Controlled Interface Dynamics

RJ Chang, H Tan, X Wang, B Porter, T Chen, Y Sheng, Y. Zhou, H. Huang, H. Bhaskaran, J. H. Warner

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2018), doi: http://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b01038

Hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions drive rapid nanoparticle assembly

BF. Porter, M. Pacios, H. Bhaskaran

Small (to appear, 2018)

Revealing Strain Induced Effects in Ultrathin Heterostructures at the Nanoscale

S. G. Sarwat, M. Tweedie, B. F. Porter, Y. Zhou, Y. Sheng, J. Mol, J. H. Warner, H. Bhaskaran

Nano Lett. (2018), doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00036

 

  • M. Kumar, B. Choubey and H. Bhaskaran, Nanomechanical resonators show higher order nonlinearity at room temperature,” arxiv:1703.03094 (2017).
  • J. Feldmann, M. Stegmaier, N. Gruhler, C. Rios, H. Bhaskaran, CD. Wright and WHP. Pernice, “Calculating with light using a chip-scale all-optical abacus,” Nature Communications, 1256, doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01506-3 (2017).
  • Z. Cheng, C. Rios, WHP Pernice, CD Wright and H Bhaskaran, “On-chip photonic synapse,” Science Advances Vol. 3, no. 9, e1700160 (2017).
  • M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran and T. Taubner, “Phase Change Materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nature Photonics, Invited Review Article 11, 465–476 (2017).
  • Zengguang Cheng, Carlos Ríos, Nathan Youngblood, C. David Wright, Wolfram H. P. Pernice, Harish Bhaskaran, "On-chip phase-change photonic memory and computing", Proc. SPIE 10345, Active Photonic Platforms IX, 1034519, 24 August 2017; doi: 10.1117/12.2272127 (2017). 
  • B. Broughton, L. Bandhu, C. Talagrand, S. Garcia-Castillo, M. Yang, H. Bhaskaran, and P. Hosseini, “Solid‐State Reflective Displays (SRD®) Utilizing Ultrathin Phase‐Change Materials,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 48, 1 doi: 10.1002/sdtp.11702 (2017).
  • Y-Y. Au, H. Bhaskaran and CD. Wright, “Phase-change devices for simultaneous optical-electrical applications,” Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-10425-8 (2017).
  • BF. Porter, N. Mkhize and H. Bhaskaran, “Nanoparticle assembly enabled by printed monolayers,” Microsystems and Nanoengineering, 3, 17054, doi: :10.1038/micronano.2017.54 (2017).
  • GS Sarwat, P Gehring, G Rodriguez-Hernandez, GAD Briggs, JA Mol and H Bhaskaran, “Scaling limits of graphene nanoelectrodes,” Nano Letters, doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00909 (2017).
  • G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, C. Rios, P. Hosseini, CD. Wright and H. Bhaskaran, “Mixed mode electrooptical operation of Ge2Sb2Te5 Devices,” Advanced Electronic Materials, doi: 10.1002/aelm.201700079 (2017).
  • Y. Sheng, X. Wang, K. Fujisawa, S. Ying, AL. Elias, Z. Lin,  W. Xu, Y. Zhou, AM. Korsunsky, H. Bhaskaran, M. Terrones, JH. Warner, “Photoluminescence Segmentation within Individual Hexagonal Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide Domains Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces,  doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b16287 (2017).
  • Rios C, Stegmaier M, Wright CD, Pernice WHP, Bhaskaran H, Multi-level storage in non-volatile phase-change nanophotonic memories 2016 IEEE Photonics Conference, IPC 2016. 408-409. 23 Jan 2017
  • M. Stegmaier, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, CD. Wright, WHP. Pernice, “Nonvolatile All-Optical 1 × 2 Switch for Chipscale Photonic Networks,” Advanced Optical Materials 5(1) 04 Jan 2017
  • S. Garcia-Cuevas Carrillo, GR. Nash, H. Hayat, MJ. Cryan, M. Lemm, H. Bhaskaran, CD. Wright, “Design of practicable phase-change metadevices for near-infrared absorber and modulator applications,” Optics Express, Vol. 24, Issue 12, pp. 13563-13573, doi: 10.1364/OE.24.013563(2016). 
  • M. Stegmaier, J. Feldmann, C. Rios, CD. Wright, H. Bhaskaran and WHP. Pernice, “Integrated phase-change photonics for all-optical processing,” European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium – E/PCOS 2016 (2016).
  • M. Stegmaier, C. Rios, CD. Wright, H. Bhaskaran and WHP. Pernice, “Reconfigurable nanophotonic devices using phase change materials,” European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium – E/PCOS 2016 (2016).
  • C. Rios, P. Hosseini, RA. Taylor, H. Bhaskaran, “Color Depth Modulation and Resolution in Phase-Change Material Nanodisplays”, Advanced Materials, doi: 10.1002/adma.201506238 (2016).
  • M. Stegmaier, C. Rios, H. Bhaskaran and WHP. Pernice, “Thermo-optical Effect in Phase-Change Nanophotonics,” ACS Photonics, 3(5), doi: 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00032 (2016).
  • S. Wang, M. Pacios, H. Bhaskaran and JH. Warner, "Substrate Control for Large Area Continuous Films of Monolayer MoS2 by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition," Nanotechnology 27 (8) 085604, doi:10.1088/0957-4484/27/8/085604 (2015).
  • H. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Rong, BF. Porter, CS Lau, Y. Zhou, Z. He, S. Wang, H. Bhaskaran and JH. Warner, “Doping Graphene Transistors Using Vertical Stacked Monolayer WS2 Heterostructures Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b08295 (2016).
  • Y. Rong, Y. Sheng, M. Pacios, X. Wang, Z. He, H. Bhaskaran and JH. Warner, “Electroluminescence Dynamics across Grain Boundary Regions of Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide,” ACS Nano, doi: 10.1021/acsnano.5b06408 (2015).
  • C. Rios, M. Stegmeier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, CD Wright, H. Bhaskaran and WHP Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory”, Nature Photonics,doi:10.1038/nphoton.2015.182 (2015).

Extensively featured across world media even prior to print publication, reaching over 11,000 viewers in under 3 months and featured in over 225 news articles, including in MIT Technology Review, Economic Times and Science.

Ranked as top article of all time by attention in Nature Photonics (Altmetrics).

News and views article in Nature Photonics “Optical memory: Phase-change memory.”

  • P. Hosseini, A. Sebastian, N. Papandreau, CD. Wright and H. Bhaskaran “Accumulation-based computing using phase change materials and FET access devices”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol.36, no.9 (2015). 
  • H. Nazeer, H. Bhaskaran, LA. Woldering, L. Abelmann, “Young's modulus and residual stress of GeSbTe phase-change thin films,” Thin Solid Films, 592 (2015). 
  • P. Hosseini and H. Bhaskaran “Colour performance and stack optimisation in phase change material based nano-displays”, Proc. SPIE 9520, Integrated Photonics: Materials, Devices, and Applications III, 10.1117/12.2178658 (2015).
  • P. Hosseini, M. Kumar and H. Bhaskaran,“2-D materials as a functional platform for phase change tunable NEMS” IEEE Access, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2439572 (2015).
  • M. Kumar and H. Bhaskaran, “Ultrasensitive Room-Temperature Transduction in Graphene-based Nanoelectromechanical Systems,” Nano Letters 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00129 (2015). 
  • Y. Rong, K. He, M. Pacios, AW Robertson, H. Bhaskaran and JH. Warner, “Controlled Preferential Oxidation of Grain Boundaries in Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide for Direct Optical Imaging,” ACS Nano,10.1021/acsnano.5b00852 (2015).
  • P. Hosseini, CD. Wright and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase change materials,” Nature 511, 206-211 (2014).

Widely featured in worldwide media including The Economist, BBC, Fortune, MIT Technology Review and over 250 news articles.

  • News and Views Article in Nature “Applied physics: A new view on displays.”
  • S. Wang, Y. Rong, Y. Fan, M. Pacios, H. Bhaskaran, K. He and JH. Warner, “Shape Evolution of Monolayer MoS2 Cystals Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Chemistry of Materials, 26 (22) pp 6371-6379 (2014).
  • D Engstrom, BF. Porter, M. Pacios and H. Bhaskaran, “Additive Nanomanufacturing – A Review,” Journal of Materials Research, 29, 17 1792-1816 (2014). 
  • C Rios, P. Hosseini, CD. Wright, H. Bhaskaran and WHP. Pernice, “On-chip photonic memory elements employing phase change materials,” Advanced Materials doi: dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma. 201304476, 2013. Corresponding Author.
  • BF. Porter, L. Abelmann and H. Bhaskaran, “Design parameters for voltage controllable directed assembly of single nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24 405304, 2013.
  • C. Rios, P. Hosseini, CD. Wright, H. Bhaskaran and WHP. Pernice, Tunable Nanophotonic circuits based on phase change materials,” Proceedings of European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium, 2013. (Invited article)
  • CD. Wright, Y-Y. Au, MM. Aziz, H. Bhaskaran, R. Cobley, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, WHP. Pernice and L. Wang, “Novel applications possibilities for phase change materials and devices,” Proceedings of European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium, 2013. (Invited article)
  • G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, Yat-Yin Au, WHP Pernice, CD Wright and H. Bhaskaran, “Mixed-Mode Electro Optical Properties of Ge2Sb2Te5,” International Symposium on Optical Memory ISOM2013, Incheon, Korea (Invited).
  • D. Garcia-Sanchez, KY Fong, H. Bhaskaran, S. Lamoreaux and HX Tang, “Casimir microscope based upon metallized high Q SiN nanomembrane resonator,” Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 015115 (2013).
  • WHP. Pernice and H. Bhaskaran, “Photonic non-volatile memories using phase change materials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 011243 2012 Cover Page Article. 

Featured in Nature Photonics, Non Volatile Memories – O. Graydon

  • D. Garcia-Sanchez, K. Fong, H.Bhaskaran, S. Lamoreaux and HX Tang, “Casimir Force and surface potential measurements between a nanomembrane resonator and a millimeter sphere,” Physical Review Letters 109, 027202 2012. Editor’s Suggestion, See Also:

“Drumming to the beat of vacuum” – APS Physics Spotlight Synopsis.

  • A. Sebastian, N. Shamsudhin, H. Rothuizen, U. Drechsler, W. Koelmans, H. Bhaskaran, JJ. Quenzer, B. Wagner and M. Despont, “Design and Fabrication of micro-cantilevers for multi-frequency atomic force microscopy,” IBM Research Report RZ3832, Z1209-001 (2012).
  • A. Sebastian, N. Shamsudhin, H. Rothuizen, U. Drechsler, W. Koelmans, H. Bhaskaran, JJ. Quenzer, B. Wagner and M. Despont, “Micro-cantilevers with integrated actuation and conductive tips for multi-frequency atomic force microscopy,” Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 096107, 2012.
  • WHP. Pernice and H. Bhaskaran, “Photonic-based non-volatile memory device using phase change materials,” Nature Conference on Frontiers in Electronic Materials: Correlation Effects and Memristive Phenomena, Jun 17-20, 2012, Aachen.
  • H. Bhaskaran, M. Li, D. Garcia-Sanchez, P. Zhao, I.Takeuchi and H.X. Tang, “Active microcantilevers based on piezoresistive ferromagnetic thin films,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 013502 2011.
  • H. Bhaskaran, B. Gotsmann, A. Sebastian, U. Drechsler, MA.Lantz, M. Despont, P. Jaroenapibal, RW. Carpick, Y. Liu and K. Sridharan, “Ultralow nanoscale wear through atom-by-atom attrition in silicon-containing diamond-like carbon,” Nature Nanotechnology, 5, 181 - 185 2010.

“Diamond-like tip better than the best” EU Cordis News.

“Achieving ultralow nanoscale wear of one atom per micrometer” Nanowerk

“Nano-foundry technique yields ultra-durable probes from diamond” PhysOrg.